Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919

The Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919: A Historic Turning Point

The Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919, also known as the Treaty of St. Germain, was a landmark treaty signed between the British Empire and Persia (now modern-day Iran). The agreement was a significant turning point in the history of Iran and shaped its political, economic, and social spheres for the next several decades. In this article, we will delve deeper into the specifics of this historic treaty and its impact.

A Brief History

The Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919 was signed on August 9, 1919, between the British Empire and the Persian government. The treaty was negotiated by Sir Percy Cox, the British High Commissioner in Persia, and Mirza Ali Asghar Khan, the Persian foreign minister.

The agreement was seen as a continuation of the previous Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828 between Persia and Russia, which had given Russia substantial economic and territorial influence in the region. The British Empire had become increasingly interested in Persia due to its strategic location and the abundance of natural resources such as oil and gas.

The Treaty`s Provisions

The Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919 consisted of an economic agreement and a political agreement. The economic agreement allowed the British Empire to exploit Iran`s rich oil reserves and granted exclusive rights to the British-controlled Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) to prospect for oil in the country. The company was also given the exclusive rights to build refineries and transport oil across Persia. The British Empire, in return, promised to provide Persia with financial and technical assistance to help develop its economy.

The political agreement, on the other hand, aimed to strengthen the Persian government`s central authority over the country`s various regions. The British Empire promised to provide military aid and training to the Persian army and police force. The treaty also established a loan agreement whereby Persia was given a loan to help pay off its debts to the British Empire.

The Treaty`s Impact

The Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919 had a significant impact on Iran`s political, economic, and social spheres. The agreement allowed the British Empire to exert considerable control over Persia`s oil resources, which had a considerable impact on the country`s economy. The APOC became the main employer in the region, and Persia`s dependence on the British Empire grew.

The treaty marked a significant turning point in Persia`s history, as it was the first time that the Persian government had given a foreign power extensive rights to exploit its natural resources. It also triggered a wave of anti-British sentiment in the country, which led to the rise of nationalist movements.

Conclusion

The Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919 was a landmark treaty that shaped the political, economic, and social spheres of Persia for several decades. It allowed the British Empire to exert significant control over the country`s oil resources, which had a considerable impact on the country`s economy. The treaty`s provisions regarding military aid and training also helped centralize the Persian government, but it also led to a rise in anti-British sentiment in the country. The treaty marked a significant turning point in Iran`s history, and its impact is still felt in the region today.

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